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Пристенный камин как средство для создания уюта в доме

пристенный каминС тех пор как человек научился использовать огонь в своих целях он постоянно совершенствовал очаг, где жил его «верный спутник». Сперва это было обычное кострище, после специальное углубление, выложенное камнем, ещё чуть позже появились жаровни, и как венец всей этой эволюции человек изобрёл камин. Первой конструкцией камина, которая, кстати, и по сей день самой распространённой является пристенный камин.

Случилось это конечно не за один день, огонь от одного десятилетия к другому постепенно вытеснялся с центра жилища ближе к стене и постепенно терял свою главную функцию, защиты и обогрева, а с развитием цивилизации открытый огонь был постепенно вытеснен из жилища человека более экономичными источниками тепла. Теперь, в наше время, камин стал символом достатка, средством создания семейной идиллии, хорошего настроения и местом вдохновения и жизненных планов. Поэтому в наше время стрессов и напряжённого жизненного цикла камин, особенно в том первозданном варианте называемом сейчас пристенный камин, имеет значение больше психологическое, чем утилитарное.

Пристенный камин, как следует из его названия, камин, располагающийся у стены. При этом в отличие от появившегося позже встроенного камина, пристенный камин полностью или частично выступает за контуры стены. В современных домах пристенный камин обычно располагают в гостиной или в жилом холле по середине стены, при этом располагать следует камин так, чтобы, чтобы по бокам от него оставалось свободное пространство не меньше 1 м. Кстати, пристенный камин можно возводить в уже построенном здании.

Пристенный камин располагают, как было сказано выше, около уже существующей кирпичной стены или перегородки. Если же стена выполнена из дерева, то в обязательном порядке следует сделать несгораемую изоляцию - кирпичную стенку (в полкирпича) на всю высоту комнаты. Делается это следующим образом: ту часть деревянной стены которая будет контактировать с камином предварительно обивают жестью или кровельным железом, после закрывают слоем войлока, обильно смоченного в глиняном растворе и уже потом выкладывают кирпичную кладку, которая армируется стальной проволокой, которую в свою очередь прибивают к стене гвоздями через каждые 2...3 ряда кирпичей. Но проще всего построить пристенный камин ещё на стадии строительства дома.

Поскольку конструкция пристенного камина (изоляционная стенка плюс камин) тяжелая, в том месте, где он будет строиться, придется делать усиленный фундамент. Его выкладывают из камней или боя кирпича со щебнем на цементно-песчаном растворе. Ниже отметки пола устраивают гидроизоляцию из двух слоев рубероида, а на отметке чистого пола делают цементно-песчаную стяжку. Далее выкладывают цоколь и площадку камина. Кирпич ставят «на ребро». Наружный ряд можно выложить желтым облицовочным кирпичом. Потом возводят стенки топливника из огнеупорного или обыкновенного, хорошо обожженного красного кирпича.

На пристенный камин стандартного размера,  в среднем, потребуются следующие материалы: кирпич красный - 200 шт. (это без учёта дымохода и фундамента) , кирпич огнеупорный - 60...70 шт., глина обыкновенная – 3-5 ведер, глина огнеупорная - 1...2 ведра, песок - 6...10 ведер, цемент - 1 ведро, задвижка - 1 шт., прочистка - 1 шт., колосниковая решетка - 1 шт.

Используемые в процессе кладки камина половинки кирпича, следует класть сколотой частью в толщу кладки, но никак не в топливник или дымоход. Не следует забывать о перевязке швов и следить, чтобы раствор их заполнил полностью, иначе нарушится тяга и камин станет дымить. Через каждые 2-3 ряда кладки внутренние поверхности затирают мокрой тряпкой, а после завершения работы - следует еще раз пройтись по ним куском кирпича, снимая все неровности. Пристенный камин после возведения, так же как и печь, просушивают периодическими топками в течение нескольких часов до полного высыхания материала из которого он был построен.



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