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Теплоизоляция загородного дома

Рис. 1 Теплоизоляция полов, стен цокольного этажа, емкостей, труб
Некоторые домовладельцы ошибочно считают, что можно ограничиться теплоизоляцией мансарды и наружных стен здания. В действительности же тепло и комфорт в вашем доме может быть обеспечен только в том случае, если основание или полы также имеют слой теплоизолятора. Рис. 2
Если цокольное помещение под полом прогревается, то теплоизолируйте его стены, в противном случае положите маты между балками, как показано на рис. 1. Такие маты крепятся проволокой или специальными сетками из пластика. Если трудно установить изоляцию в пространстве под полом, то можно поднять половицы и положить маты, накрыв их сверху ДСП.
Установка пароизоляционного слоя позволит предотвратить конденсацию влаги на нижней поверхности. Рис. 3
В условиях холодного климата водопроводные трубы и емкости, расположенные в неотапливаемой части дома, также должны быть теплоизолированы. Это делается для того, чтобы предотвратить замерзание холодной воды и свести к минимуму потери тепла в трубах с горячей водой.
Для этих целей можно воспользоваться специальными покрытиями из вспененных или натуральных материалов. Рис. 4
В качестве альтернативы можно использовать полоски теплоизоляции, которые наматываются вокруг труб. Для защиты изоляции от сырости рекомендуется покрывать ее полиэтиленовой пленкой, закрепив последнюю проволокой или липкой лентой.

Теплоизоляция емкостей и труб
Теплоизоляция емкости с горячей водой (рис. 2). Установите кожух, изготовленный из теплоизоляционного материала толщиной не менее 80 мм. Соедините отдельные элементы кожуха ремнями без излишнего сдавливания, чтобы не осталось щелей. Это сократит потери тепла примерно на 75 %.
Теплоизоляция труб (рис. 3,4). Очистите трубы, удалив с них ржавчину. После этого наденьте на трубы рукава (скорлупы) из теплоизолирующего материала, обеспечив плотный контакт. При необходимости можно отрезать часть рукава или скорлупы. Рис. 5
Для изоляции трубы сверху наложите специальную гидроизоляционную ленту, в том числе на открытые участки труб таким образом, чтобы не оставалось щелей. Сверху оберните место соединения полимерной пленкой.

Теплоизоляция цокольных помещений
Отапливаемые эксплуатируемые в холодное время года цокольные помещения, требуется изолировать от холодной внешней среды. Описываемая ниже технология применяется как в случае сплошных стен, так и при наличии воздушного промежутка между слоями кирпича.
В данной ситуации лучше всего использовать специальные полужесткие или жесткие панели теплоизолятора. Они приклеиваются между рейками, а сверху закрываются гипсокартонными плитами или другими отделочными панелями. Рис. 6
Рейки прибиваются к стенам с интервалом, соответствующим ширине таких плит. Например, рейки сечением 50х25?мм располагаются так, чтобы расстояние между их центрами равнялось 600 мм; на них устанавливаются плиты шириной 600 или 1200 мм.
Установка реек (рис. 5). Верхняя и нижняя рейки сечением 50х25?мм крепятся саморезами с интервалом 600 мм. Таким же образом устанавливаются рейки вокруг окон. После этого ставятся вертикальные рейки: сначала по углам, затем по стене с интервалом 600 мм. Рис. 7
Завершается работа установкой горизонтальных реек. Расстояние между горизонтальными рейками должно быть таково, чтобы вы могли положить панели размером 600х300 мм. Вертикальное и горизонтальное расположение реек следует контролировать с помощью уровня.
Установка теплоизоляционных панелей (рис. 6) Обратная сторона теплоизоляционных панелей покрывается клеящим составом, после чего они плотно устанавливаются между рейками. Рис. 8
Облицовка стен (рис. 7) Закрепите к рейкам (гвозди, саморезы) гипсокартонные или другие облицовочные плиты толщиной 12,5 мм. Устанавливая плиту, подложите снизу куски дерева. Закрепив плиты, удалите подпорки, образовавшаяся щель шириной 25?мм защитит стену от аккумуляции влаги на полу.
Теплоизоляция верхних участков стен (рис. 8) Заключительная операция по теплоизоляции цоколя предусматривает укладку матов на крайних балках и между концами балок. Закрепите куски мата с помощью степлера скобами, расположив пароизолирующий слой внутрь.
Обратите внимание на частичное перекрывание теплоизолятором деревянных реек.


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