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Черника

Свое название черника получила благодаря цвету ягод и по свойству чернить зубы. Черника обыкно­венная ( Vaccinium myrtillus L .) относится к семейству брусничных ( Vacciniaceae ), ко­торое насчитывает около 200 видов.

Особые приметы

Черника — это небольшой, ветвистый лис­топадный кустарник высотой до 60 см. Вет­ки в верхней части растения ребристые, зе­леные, сохраняют свою окраску и зимой. Цветки у черники мелкие, светло-розовые, одиночные, расположены они в пазухах ли­стьев на коротких цветоножках. Ее плод

темно-синяя, с сизоватым налетом, сочная, шаровидная ягода диаметром до 13 мм с приплюснутой верхушкой, приятного кис­ловато-сладкого, слегка вяжущего вкуса. Черника цветет в мае-июне, а в июле-авгу­сте уже созревают ягоды. Плодоношение кустов черники начинается с 3—5-летнего возраста, достигает максимума в 10—15 дет и постепенно снижается к 30—40 годам. Отдельные кустики черники живут по 5—7 лет, однако между собой они связаны единым корневищем, продолжительность жизни которого может достигать 200 лет.

Правила выращивания

На сегодняшний день ни в Украине, ни за рубежом черника все еще не введена в культуру. Селекционная работа с ней практически не ведется. Лишь в Италии из дикорастущей черники отобран ряд ценных форм. Черника является перспек­тивным растением для введения в культу­ру, особенно с учетом того, что при "одо­машнивании" размер ее ягод увеличива­ется. Поэтому садоводы, которые хотят иметь в своем саду это прекрасное расте­ние, могут провести целенаправленный поиск наиболее интересных клонов в при­роде с последующим выращиванием их на садовом участке. В природе черника рас­пространена преимущественно в хвойных и смешанных влажных или заболоченных лесах, а также в тундре и высокогорьях. Это растение требовательно к свету, однако хорошо переносит и затенение, особенно в молодом возрасте. В горных районах Карпат черника лучше плодоно­сит на открытых местах, вырубках, окра­инах полонии, прогалинах.

Черника — растение полутени, но если ее выращивать на открытых солнечных местах, то урожай увеличивается. Наи­более подходящими для черники явля­ются влажные, хорошо аэрируемые, бо­гатые перегноем почвы с показателем рН 3,8—5. Оптимальный уровень грунто­вых вод для нее — 50—90 см. Культурная черника очень чувствительна к недостат­ку влаги, но при этом не выдерживает застоя воды. Зимостойкость черники высокая, однако при раннем цветении возможно повреждение цветков поздне-весенними заморозками.

На легких почвах с рН выше 5 для при­готовления места посадки используют низинный торф, смешанный с крупно­зернистым речным песком (3:1), который вносят на перекопанный участок слоем 15—20 см. Большинство садовых почв недостаточно кислые для выращивания черники. В этом случае успешное выра­щивание возможно лишь при условии со­ответствующей подготовки почвы. Для каждого куста готовят яму 100 x 100 или 150 x 150 см и глубиной 50—60 см или же канаву такой же ширины и глубины. Почву из ямы перемешивают с торфом (2:1) и перегнившими дубовыми листья­ми. На 1 м 3 земли для подкисления доба­вляют 150—250 г порошковидной серы.

Осенью или весной до начала вегета­ции можно купить в питомнике или вы­копать из черничного леса наиболее приглянувшиеся 2—3-летние кусты черники вместе с землей и посадить в сад на расстоянии 100—150 см. Возраст расте­ния можно определить, подсчитав коли­чество годичных приростов. Почву вок­руг кустов уплотняют, поливают и мульчируют 2—1-сантиметровым сло­ем опилок или опавших листьев. Полив производится по мере необходимости, не допускается пересыхания почвы. При появлении болезней растения опрыскивают 1% бордоской жидко­стью. Каждые 2—3 года желательно вносить в верхний сдай почвы 2—4 кг/м г органических удобрений. Из минераль­ных удобрений можно использовать только те, что не содержат хлор. Еже­годно в мае и июне вносят сульфат ам­мония, калимагнезию и суперфосфат — 10—20 г на 10 л воды. При рН выше 5 во­круг кустов рассыпают 50 г серы.

Обрезку черники начинают рано весной после 3—4 лет роста. Вырезают 2—3 старых ветки, взамен оставляя столько же молодых, удаляют усохшие, поврежденные и больные ветки.



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