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На вершине колодца

  Колодец – это, прежде всего, жизненно необходимый элемент дачного участка, но, в то же время, он – элемент архитектуры, так называемая, «малая форма».

Сегодня, когда, в силу разных обстоятельств, многие строят сами, не обращаясь к архитектору, стилистика дачной архитектуры оставляет желать лучшего.

Нелепых, некрасивых и даже уродливых домов, к сожалению, великое множество. И что же тут ждать «ансамблевой застройки» и стилевого единства от надворных построек?

Между тем, архитектуре колодцев издревле придавалось большое значение.

Вспомним хотя бы каменные колодцы с чугунными или железными коваными навершиями в европейских монастырских двориках, оформление родников и источников в монастырях, городах и деревнях, великолепные силуэты колодцев русского севера, не говоря уже о сокровищах народного зодчества.

Каков бы ни был источник воды на вашем участке – скважина, родник, колодец, даже уличный водопровод, всегда, обустраивая навершие, обращайте внимание, во-первых, на удобство пользования и эксплуатации, и, во-вторых, на стилевое единство архитектуры дома и колодца.

Поскольку, в нашу задачу не входит описание строительных приёмов и конструкций собственно ствола колодца или другого водоподъёмного или водоприёмного устройства, а лишь рекомендации по стилевому решению наземной архитектуры, остановимся на нескольких вариантах, подходящих для колодцев из бетонных колец или бревенчатого сруба.

Архитектуру таких колодцев определяют:
 - подъёмное устройство (ворот, колесо, насос);
 - укрытие жерла от пыли, грязи или попадания посторонних предметов;
 - обработка цоколя наземной части.

Самый простой цоколь для деревянного сруба – тот же прямоугольный сруб с любой обработкой углов.

На границе выхода сруба из земли, нижний венец хорошо бы обработать антисептиком, обернуть рубероидом и выложить цоколёк из булыжных камней на цементном растворе (см. рис. 1).

Вообще, булыжный или каменный цоколь как для круглого, так и для прямоугольного колодца, очень красив и стилистически универсален (см. рис. 2, 4).

При выполнении такого цоколя, наружное бетонное кольцо используют, как опалубку, равномерно наращивая по нему бутовую или булыжную кладку на цементном растворе.

Подъёмное устройство – это, как правило, ворот. Эта конструкция не требует объяснения, но хотелось бы вернуть в нашу действительность красивый, до сих пор распространённый на севере колёсный (штурвальный) ворот (см. рис. 4).

Сама конструкция колеса – не сложна, кроме того, оно может быть и не обязательно круглым, но и многоугольным. Колесо можно покрасить, расписать узорами или украсить резьбой.

Крыша колодца – тоже немаловажный элемент архитектуры.

Она может полностью укрывать горловину, может быть только навесом без боковых стенок, может быть двухскатной, четырёхскатной, пологой или островерхой, покрытой тёсом (см. рис. 1, 5), рубероидной черепицей (см. рис. 2), настоящей керамической или цементной черепицей (см. рис. 3), в конце концов, металлом.

Важно, чтобы крыша вашего дома и крыша колодца были из одного материала.

Стены фронтонов разумно выполнить из тех же материалов, что и фронтоны мансардного этажа, как правило, – это вертикальная или горизонтальная вагонка.

Таким образом, мы видим, что построенный вами дом сам, как бы, подсказывает, какой архитектурной стилистикой должны обладать и надворные постройки, и малые формы вашего участка, включая колодец.

Так, с кирпичным домом, покрытым черепицей, хорошо гармонирует колодец, показанный на рисунке 3.

Для бревенчатого дома в русском стиле подходят те, что показаны на рисунках 1, 3 и 5.

Колодец, изображённый на рисунке 2, – универсальный, но особенно хорош он для дома с высокой крышей, покрытой рубероидом, имитирующим черепичное или шиферное покрытие и даже покрытие лемехом.

Сегодня это пока редкое для наших дачных посёлков покрытие, хотя, оно очень декоративно, долговечно и сравнимо по цене с качественным рубероидом.

Этой небольшой публикацией далеко не исчерпываются сотни возможных вариаций обустройства навершия колодцев. Главное – помнить о стилевом единстве и удобстве эксплуатации.



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