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Стены из шлакобетона

Застройщики, которые строят индивидуальные дома вблизи фабрично заводских и промышленных поселков, а также городов, с успехом могут использовать как стеновой материал различные шлаки и изготовленные из них стеновые блоки.

Шлаки являются отходами промышленности и подразделяются на топливные (отходы от сжигания угля в промышленных, паровозных и других топках), пористые гранулированные доменные, применяемые в шлакобетон.

Доменные шлаки и особенно гранулированные, малодоступны для индивидуальных застройщиков, поскольку эти шлаки поступают на заводы строительных материалов, где из них изготавливают шлакобетона блоки, перемалывают на шлаковый цемент, а также добавки к специальным цементов Значительно шире распространены топливные шлаки. Они доступны для использования в индивидуальном строительстве. С топливных шлаков также могут быть изготовлены стеновые блоки.

Следует указать на то, что изготовление стеновых блоков из шлакобетона невмоготу индивидуальным застройщикам. Поэтому следует приобретать шлакобетонових блоков в организациях, торгующих строительными материалами.

Конструкции стен, изготовленных с применением шлака, могут быть следующими: с шлакобетонових стеновых блоков, шлаконабивни, шлаконабивни с кирпичным облицовкой.

В том случае, если застройщик выберет шлаконабивни стены или шлаконабивни с кирпичным облицовкой, ему следует внимательно ознакомиться со свойствами шлаков, из которых он будет строить стены своего дома.

В зависимости от вида сжигаемого топлива получают шлаки и золы: а) антрацитные, б) каменно-угольные, в) буроугольные, г) от сжигания подмосковного угля, д) торфяные, е) смешанные.

Антрацитные шлаки, образовавшиеся при относительно высокой температуре, прочные и устойчивые. Более молодые угля (бурые и подмосковные) имеет слоистую и землистую строение. Этот уголь способно легко окисляться, набухать при увлажнении и растрескиваться при высыхании.

Наличие в шлаках кусков этого угля делает шлаки из бурого и подмосковного угля малоустойчивые к атмосферным воздействиям. Наиболее распространенное каменный уголь дают топливные шлаки, обладающие промежуточными свойствами, которые позволяют широко применять их при изготовлении шлакобетона.

В состав топливных шлаков входят:

а) собственно шлаки - пористые куски различной большой из расплавленных неорганических составляющих угля, спекшиеся;
б) золы - порошкообразные частицы неорганических примесей, не спекшиеся между собой, в топливе. Эти частицы имеют размеры менее 0,3 мм. Содержание золы в шлаке должен быть ограничен;
в) несгоревших угля является нежелательной примесью, поскольку он снижает прочность шлакобетона. Это особенно относится к несгоревших частиц бурого и подмосковного угля;
г) кОКС - пористые частицы, потерявшие летучие и такие, которые окисляются частицы угля, менее вредные для шлакобетона, чем несгоревших угля; д) включение неорганической части угля, не спекшиеся, и особенно, пустой породы. Эти включения состоят из слоистых глиняных пород, способных размягчаться и набухать при увлажнении и растрескиваться при высыхании. Особенно часто такие включения встречаются в шлаках подмосковного и бурого угля;
е) различные вредные примеси (легкорастворимые соли, особенно сернокислые), вступающие в реакции с цементом и разрушающие шлакобетон.

К шлакам, применяемым как составляющая шлакобетона, предъявляются следующие требования:

1) шлак должен быть чистым и не содержать землистый и глинистых примесей, кусков металла, мусора и других посторонних примесей;
2) содержание несгоревшего угля в шлаке должен быть минимальным;
3) объемный вес смеси крупного и мелкого шлака в сухом рыхлом состоянии не должна превышать 900 кг в 1 мг.

Чтобы уменьшить содержание необожженных глинистых частиц и вредных солей в шлаке, его надо выдержать в отвалах на открытом воздухе возможно долгое время. При этом во избежание скопления растворимых солей в нижней части отвала, следует обеспечить свободное отвода воды с площадки, где заключен шлак. Перед применением шлаки нужно просеивать для разделения их на мелкий (частицы менее 5 мм) и крупный заполнители.

А вот Шкода Октавия это совсем не шлак, это хороший современный автомобиль. Официальный дилер skoda octavia в России компания Автопрага рекомендует вам купить Октавию.

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