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Строительство ограждений на загородном участке

Ограждение участка - составная часть его благоустройства. Ограда должна обозначать границы участка; обеспечивать его изоляцию от посторонних и домашних животных; не затенять садовых и огородных культур, в том числе и на соседних участках; не препятствовать проветриванию участка.

Высота фасадной стороны ограды - 1,2…1,8 м, внутренней, расположенной между соседними участками - не выше 1 м.

К оградам относятся заборы, изгороди и решетки (рис. 107-112). Ограждение состоит из столбов, чаще всего деревянных или бетонных, закопанных в землю на глубину 50…80 см, с промежутками между ними 2…3 м, перекладин и штакетника. Чтобы продлить долговечность оград, нижние концы столбиков осмаливают или обжигают не менее чем на 20 см выше поверхности земли.

Ограды из кирпича и фасонной керамики
Рис. 107 Ограды из кирпича и фасонной керамики

Ограда из штакетника
Рис. 108 Ограда из штакетника

Ограда из проволочной сетки
Рис. 109 Ограда из проволочной сетки

Ограда из сборного железобетона
Рис. 110 Ограда из сборного железобетона

Ограда из деревянных реек
Рис. 111 Ограда из деревянных реек

Ограда из металлической сетки по деревянному каркасу
Рис. 112 Ограда из металлической сетки по деревянному каркасу

Можно делать и так. Конец столба обматывают одним-двумя слоями рубероида, закрепляют его тонкой проволокой и мелкими гвоздями, а затем прогревают паяльной лампой. Битумная пропитка рубероида плавится, и он плотно приваривается к древесине. При возведении забора слеги приколачивают к столбикам, имеющим пазы.

Штакетник выполняют из пиленых реек, кругляков и горбылей. Его приколачивают гвоздями к поперечным слегам - брусьям размером 5 - 3 см.

Чтобы сделать ограду устойчивой, каждый третий столбик подпирают косо поставленной подпоркой. Штакетник и бруски красят масляной краской.

Долговечность оград повышается, если вместо деревянных опорных столбиков используют железобетонные. Такие столбики высотой до 1,2 м можно изготовить своими силами. Для этого сбивают разъемную деревянную опалубку и заполняют ее бетонным раствором по металлической арматуре. Когда бетон затвердеет, столбики закапывают в землю на глубину 50…80 см, а между ними крепят слеги, к которым приколачивают штакетник или подвешивают проволочную сетку.

Иногда делают низкие деревянные заборы (рис. 113) - глухие или с просветами - из штакетника, кругляков и т. д. Концы вертикальных столбов и конец наклонной подпоры обжигают или покрывают слоем специального вещества. Столбы вкапывают в землю на глубину 60…80 см. Слеги осаживают в пазы столбов и прибивают гвоздями.

Низкие деревянные заборы
Рис. 113 Низкие деревянные заборы:
1 - из кругляков; 2 - из горбылей; 3 - из штакетника

Нередко в сельской местности встречаются саманные, кирпичные или керамические ограждения, а также сплетенные из лозы ивы или орешника. Однако самой надежной и долговечной оградой является живая изгородь из желтой акации, шиповника, боярышника, барбариса и других колючих тернистыx кустарников, которые хорошо переносят пострижку, защищают усадьбу от пыли, гасят уличный шум, не требуют никакого ремонта и красиво выглядят.

Осенью вдоль будущей изгороди копают траншею шириной до 1 м, глубиной 30…40 см. Землю очищают от камней, щебня, битого кирпича и корней сорняков и перемешивают с перепревшим навозом или компостом (рис. 114).

Посадка живой изгороди
Рис. 114 Посадка живой изгороди

Затем высаживают кустарники, соблюдая между ними определенное расстояние в зависимости от вида (рис. 115). Чтобы земля плотно заполняла пространство между корнями кустарников, ее слегка притаптывают ногой, а позднее поливают водой.

Живая изгородь с каркасом из железобетонных столбиков и проволоки
Рис. 115 Живая изгородь с каркасом из железобетонных столбиков и проволоки

Живая изгородь быстро и хорошо разрастается, если регулярно перекапывать около нее землю, удалять сорняки, вносить минеральные удобрения, компост или перепревший навоз, а в засушливое время поливать.


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