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Строительство погреба. Как построить погреб своими руками

Испокон веков сельские труженики хранят продукты в погребах, расположенных на усадьбе близ жилища.

Для строительства погреба своими руками роют котлован, лучше всего на возвышенном месте, чтобы не заливали дождевые и талые воды. Глубина котлована не менее 2 м, площадь 8 м2, желательно квадратная. Стены делают из кирпича, бетонных блоков или бревен.

Погреб-ледник своими руками
Рис. 41 Погреб-ледник своими руками:
1 - лестница; 2 - ледник; 3 - задвижка; 4 - вытяжная труба; 5 - люк; 6 - крыша; 7 - теплоизолирующий материал; 8 - перекрытие; 9 - стеллаж; 10 - отсеки; 11 - водосток-приямок

Гидроизоляцию уже готового погреба осуществляют следующим образом (рис. 42). В сухое время года, когда вода уйдет, стены выкладывают в полкирпича. В земляной пол трамбовкой вбивают бутовый камень или битый кирпич, заливают его слоем тощего раствора бетона (1 часть цемента и 6 частей песка). На стенах с помощью костылей закрепляют металлическую сетку, пропустив ее по полу.

Вариант гидроизоляции погреба
Рис. 42 Вариант гидроизоляции погреба:
1, 4 - рубероид; 2 - кирпичная кладка; 3 - объемная сетка; 5 - песок; 6 - бутовый камень; 7 - котлован

Очень важно, чтобы сетка образовала каркас, элементы которого были бы хорошо связаны друг с другом. После этого заштукатуривают раствором цемента и песка в соотношении 1:3. Пока раствор окончательно не застыл, производят «затирку»: влажные поверхности присыпают сухим цементом и разравнивают мастерком. Стены и пол обрабатывают раствором чистого цемента, покрывая их слоем 0,5… 1 см. Более тол стый слой при затвердении может растрескаться.

Если погреб строится заново, гид роизоляцию делают несколько иначе (рис. 43). Котлован роют с запасом по объему. Его дно уплотняют трамбоикой, вбивая бутовый камень и осколки кирпича. Дно заливают тощим раствором бетона (см. выше). Не дожидать высыхания, его покрывают песком слоем 2…3 см, чтобы скрыть дефекты поверхности. После этого по дну в два слоя прокладывают длинные листы рубероида так, чтобы их краев хватило и на стены. Наружные листы рубероида (края) прикрепляют к кирпичным стенам битумом. Кирпичный «каркас» помещения делают в полкирпича, а затем на стены навешивают объемную сетку.

Вариант гидроизоляции погреба
Рис. 43 Вариант гидроизоляции погреба:
1 - кирпичная кладка; 2 - объемная сетка; 3 - водосборник; 4 - бутовый камень

Кирпич для стен используют только красный.

Дальнейший ход работ точно такой же, как и при гидроизоляции уже готового погреба.

Посредине дна погреба неплохо сделать водосборник размером 50 - 50 см глубиной 30…50 см, закрываемый деревянной крышкой. На дно его насыпают слой гравия или крупного шлака, чтобы ускорить процесс впитывания влаги в грунт.

Обычно погреба строят в сухом грунте. Если грунт влажный, пол и стены треба изолируют, применяя бетон, камень или кирпич-железняк.

Котлован перекрывают бревенчатым накатом, пазы которого замазывают глиной, а потом засыпают теплоизолирующей крошкой. Вниз ведет обычная лестница. Предусматривается вытяжная труба с задвижкой.

Крышу настилают шалашом из горбылей, досок или полубревен и заделывают дерном. Вход размещают с се верной стороны. От стен устраивают отмостки шириной не менее 1,5 м, с уклоном в сторону от погреба, с кюветами для отвода воды.

Под шалашом хранят садово-огородный инструмент, пиломатериалы или приспособления, например лестницы-стремянки, козлы и т. п. Содержать над погребом скот и птицу не допускается.

Весной, когда только начинает таять снег, погреб до отказа набивают льдом, наколотым на озере или реке.


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