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Теплица своими руками

В теплицах - специально оборудованных помещениях с покрытием из стекла или прозрачных пленки и пластика - выращивают рассаду, овощные, плодовые и декоративные культуры.

Каркас арочной теплицы с печным отоплением (рис. 102) собирают из вырезанных по шаблону досок. Длина теплицы 4,5 м, ширина 2,5 м.

Самодельная арочная теплица
Рис. 102 Арочная теплица своими руками:
а - разрез; б - вид сбоку

Доски сечением 3 - 10 см скрепляют между собой гвоздями. Четыре арки расставляют на расстоянии 1,5 м друг от друга. Фундаментом для арок служат деревянные столбики толщиной 15 см, которые закладывают в землю на глубину около 30 см. Над уровнем земли столбики возвышаются на 20 см.

Обрешетку арок делают из обрезных досок сечением 3 - 10 см. В торцовой арке устанавливают дверную коробку, сделанную из брусков. Затем арки накрывают пленкой, склеенной из полотнищ горячим утюгом или паяльной лампой. Пленочное покрытие на обрешетке закрепляют рейками, чтобы избежать парусности.

В теплице находится печь-кладушка (рис. 103). Конструкция печи очень проста. Ее высота 1,5 м, площадь 38 - 76 см. Она поставлена на грунт с подсыпкой щебеночной подушки толщиной 20 см. Стены печи сложены в пол кирпича. Имеются две задвижки, топочная, поддувальная и прочистная дверцы и колосниковая решетка.

Печь для теплицы
Рис. 103 Печь для теплицы:
а - общий вид; б - разрез

Топят печь дровами, брикетами из угольной пыли и торфяной крошки, щепками, хворостом.

Печное отопление хорошо регули рует температурно-влажностный режим в теплице и дает возможность раньше начинать весенние работы.

Теплица на чердаке своими рукамиТеплицу можно разместить не только на земле, но и на чердаке одного из приусадебных строений (рис. 104). В этом случае крышу утепляют с северной стороны, тщательно заделывая щели, чтобы избежать сквозного продувания, а с трех других сторон кровлю остекляют. Лучше всего для этой цели использовать парниковые рамы, устанавливая их с уклоном 40°, чтобы зимой не заносило снегом, ведь смести его, , не повредив стекла, очень трудно.

Теплица на чердаке
Рис. 104 Теплица на чердаке:
1 - рамы парниковые; 2 - крыша утепленная; 3 - ящики; 4 - стропила

Затем приступают к внутреннему оборудованию чердачной теплицы. Ящики размером 110 - 150 см, выстланные изнутри полиэтиленовой пленкой, лучше всего разместить на «козлах» (рис. 105). Вход в теплицу делают с любой из боковых сторон и используют для подъема приставную лестницу.

Устройство ящика для теплицы на чердаке
Рис. 105 Устройство ящика для теплицы на чердаке

Пристенная теплицаТеплицы с водяным отоплением (рис. 106) устраивают в тех случаях, когда в доме имеется автономное отопление от водогрейного котла.

Пристенная теплица своими руками
Пристенная теплица своими руками
Рис. 106 Пристенная теплица своими руками:
а - каркас; б - поперечный разрез;
1 - верхний лежень; 2 - шпроссы; 3 - приямок; 4 - нижний лежень; 5 - поперечники; 6 - откосы; 7 - столбы; 8 - полка для выращивания зелени; 9 - вводы трубы отопления и водопровода; 10 - радиатор отопления; 11 - стойка стеллажа; 12 - труба отопления; 13 - стеллаж; 14 - застекленный скат; 15 - вентиляционная труба

Теплицу сооружают около стены каменного отапливаемого помещения, обязательно с солнечной стороны. Для строительства используют стандартные парниковые рамы. Угол наклона теплицы делают 25…35°. Пол служит как бы продолжением отмостки постройки и выполняется с небольшим уклоном (2…3°) от стены. Пол набивают шлаком или смесью щебенки и крупнозернистого песка. Часть стены, смежную с теплицей, покрывают гидроизоляционным слоем толя или пергамина при помощи горячего битума или красят водостойкой эмалевой краской в 2…3 слоя.

Каркас теплицы (стропила) делают из деревянных брусков и металлических уголков. Стропила каркаса верхним концом опираются на настенный брусок, а другим - на небольшой цокольный фундамент из кирпича или толстых досок. Стропила соединяют между собой угловым продольным бруском.

Так как стропила собирают из брусков Т-образного сечения, образуются фальцы для укладки тепличных рам. При использовании остекленных рам между горбыльковыми брусками устанавливают расстояние 30…32 см. Подрамники пленочных рам обвязывают проволокой крест-накрест.


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