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We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 39 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 40 Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 41 Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 42 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 44 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 49 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 49 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 50 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 50 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 213 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 26 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/classes/rss.class.php on line 137 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. 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We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 229 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 229 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 233 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 233 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 374 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. 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We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Шпалы » ООО НПФ "Сонат"

Шпалы

В текущее время самую большую популярность имеют шпалы древесные. Меньшее распространение на практике получили железобетонных и железных шпалы. Но создание железобетонных шпал непреклонно вырастает.

Древесные шпалы изготавливают в большей степени из хвойных деревьев, таких как, к примеру, сосна, ель, лиственница.

При производстве древесных шпал, во-1-х, следует установить предназначение шпал, так как существует три главных предназначений: для основных путей в большей степени для 1-го и 2-го классов, для основных путей 3-го и 4-го классов, для путей 5-го класса.

Во-2-х, избрать форму поперечного сечения, которая также разделяется на три вида: необрезные, полуобрезные, обрезные.

Посреди главных преимуществ использования древесных шпал выделяют легкость обработки, сравнимо низкие цены на сырье, низкая чувствительность к колебаниям температуры.

К главным же недочетам такового вида шпал относят внедрение леса, в качестве сырья для производства, относящегося к категории не стопроцентно возобновляемых ресурсов, загнивание в местах скрепления шпал с рельсами, стремительная степень износа.

В связи с выделенными недочетами древесных шпал, в текущее время наблюдается процесс подмены данного вида шпал железобетонными, невзирая на тенденцию роста цены металла и цемента.

Железобетонные шпалы имеют вид железобетонной балки переменного сечения. Создание железобетонных шпал осуществляется с подготовительным натяжение арматуры.

На практике выделяют последующие метод натяжения арматуры:

1)механический метод осуществляется с внедрением гидравлических либо винтообразных домкратов;

2)электротермический метод употребляется для удлинения арматуры до нужного значения средством электротока используемый для разогрева арматуры;

3)электротермомеханический метод. Таковой метод натяжения арматуры соединяет внутри себя механический и электротермический метод.

Основным достоинством железобетонных шпал по сопоставлению с древесными шпалами является высочайшая степень прочности и длительный срок эксплуатации.

Недочетами железобетонных шпал является высочайшая цена применяемого сырья для производства, твердость, приводящая к высочайшей степени износа износ рельсов и бандажей колесных пар.

Для устранения недочетов, а а именно для компенсации жесткости, при производстве данного вида шпал употребляют упругие прокладки меж шпалами и рельсом. Но данная разработка производства железобетонных шпал приводит к значительному повышению цены пути.

Железные шпалы на практике употребляются изредка, так как появляется сильный шум, при движении поездов, электропроводность, которая исключает возможность их укладки на линиях трудность уплотнения балласта под шпалы.

Но, невзирая на ряд проблем возникающих при эксплуатации железных шпал, они владеют значительными преимуществами, а конкретно, длительный срок службы по сопоставлению с другими видами шпал, просто перерабатываемые, экономные, так как после переработки сохраняют до 40% собственной цены, возможность использования фактически по всему миру в связи с тем, что выдерживают высочайшие температуры.

Также посреди плюсов железных шпал нужно выделить наличие малого количества крепежных частей и малозначительный вес.

Посреди недочетов более значимым является отсутствие электроизоляции рельсовых цепей. Но данный недочет этих шпал устраняется при внедрение разных изолирующих прокладок.


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