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We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Деформационные швы в цельных железобетонных конструкциях » ООО НПФ "Сонат"

Деформационные швы в цельных железобетонных конструкциях

Разделяющие сооружение на секции для предотвращения возникновения в бетоне трещинок от температурных напряжений швы, именуются температурными. Температурный шов разделяет всю надземную часть строения либо сооружения по высоте. Швы, предотвращающие возникновение трещинок в бетоне от неравномерной осадки сооружения, именуются осадочными; деформационный осадочный шов разделяет все здание совместно с фундаментом по высоте. При наличии в сооружении температурных и осадочных швов сразу, их обычно совмещают. Такие деформационные швы именуют температурно-осадочными. Размещение и устройство температурных и деформационных швов указываются в рабочих чертежах.

Рабочие швы являются технологическими и представляют собой плоскость стыка меж ранее уложенным затвердевшим бетоном и свежеуложенным. При строительстве железобетонных конструкций рекомендуется по способности, безпрерывно укладывать бетонную смесь. Время от времени это является обязательным технологическим условием, к примеру, при устройстве фундаментов под машины, работающие в динамических режимах. Но почти всегда при сооружении обыденных конструкций по организационным и технологическим причинам перерывы в бетонировании неминуемы и, как следует, безизбежно устройство рабочих швов. В отличие от деформационных в рабочих швах должны быть исключены перемещения стыкуемых поверхностей относительно друг дружку. Плоскость стыка меж старенькым и новым участками стыкуемой конструкции является вроде бы границей конфигурации направлений усадочных деформаций, потому тут появляются растягивающие усилия, ослабляющие зону стыка. Все это определяет завышенные требования к размещению соединений в конструкции, их конструктивному оформлению и технологии их выполнения. В вертикальных элементах делают горизонтальные рабочие швы, строго перпендикулярно граням элемента. В опорах, прогонах и плитах рабочий шов - вертикально, потому что наклонный шов, в плоскости деяния скалывающих напряжений, ослабляет конструкцию.


При работах по бетонированию колонн рабочие швы оставляют на уровне верха фундамента, у низа порогов, балок либо подкрановых консолей, у низа капителей колонн безбалочных перекрытий, в рамных конструкциях — у верха вута меж стойками и ригелями рам. Бетонирование балок и плит ведется сразу. Если опора имеет огромное сечение и бетонировать ее сразу с плитой нереально, то опору бетонируют раздельно. В данном случае бетон не доводят на 200-300 мм до уровня нижней грани плиты, а если плита имеет вут — то до начала вута. В процессе бетонирования отдельных балок не допускается устраивать рабочий шов в границах средней трети просвета. При бетонировании ребристых перекрытий следует управляться последующим: если бетонирование идет в направлении, параллельном второстепенным опорам, рабочий шов устраивают в границах средней трети просвета балок, а в случае бетонирования в направлении, параллельном основным опорам (прогонам), рабочий шов располагают в границах 2-ух средних четвертей просвета прогонов и плит.


Бетонирование может быть возобновлено после малозначительного перерыва в работе, когда уложенный бетон еще находится в ранешней стадии твердения и сохраняет некую подвижность либо когда он уже заполучил исходную крепкость. В случае ранешнего затвердения, чтоб не разрушить нарождающуюся кристаллизационную структуру ранее уложенного бетона и не нарушать его сцепления с арматурой при укладке свежайшего бетона, нужно избегать сотрясений опалубки и на расстоянии до 1 м от стыка не использовать вибраторов. Если бетон уже достигнул некой прочности (более 1-1,2 МПа), поверхность, конкретно примыкающую к стыку, бетонируют обыденным методом. Для наилучшего сцепления ранее уложенного бетона со свежайшим с плоскости стыка убирают карбонатную пленку шириной до 3 мк, которая появляется в итоге взаимодействия минералов цемента с углекислотой. Потом бетон насекают, кропотливо промывают либо продувают сжатым воздухом и покрывают слоем цементного раствора шириной 1,5-2 мм. Расстояние меж строй швами устанавливают с учетом критерий производства на базе технико-экономических расчетов.


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