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We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/ih321407/public_html/sonat-spc.ru/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 447 Древесные стеновые конструкции » ООО НПФ "Сонат"

Древесные стеновые конструкции

Дерево - обычный строительный материал, из которого строят рубленые и каркасные дома в почти всех странах мира.

В обрубленных домах несущей конструкцией является древесная стенка, состоящая из продольно уложенных друг на друга бревен либо бруса - "венцов" . Венцы связывают меж собой по углам "в лапу" и по вертикали "шипами" (в виде призм либо цилиндров, устанавливаемых, обычно, в шахматном порядке) либо "сжимами" (нагелями). Меж венцами в качестве термоизоляции прокладывают просмоленную паклю, пропитанный битумом войлок либо мох. Принятая толщина бруса 150-200 мм; тепловое сопротивление стенки менее 1,6 кв.м oС/Вт.

Древесные каркасные стенки (либо из щитов) экономичнее исходя из убеждений расхода древесной породы и эффективности термоизоляции.

Достоинства обычных систем были объединены в каркасно-брусовой технологии "дропп-лог". Несущими в данной системе являются брусовая и каркасная составляющие конструкции . Брус делает функции отделочного слоя, а по внутренней поверхности каркасной части расположена термоизоляция, что позволяет обеспечить требуемое для cредней полосы тепловое сопротивление. Каркасно-брусовая разработка позволяет строить строения высочайшей степени трудности, исключающей усадку.

Каким бы неплохим материалом не была древесная порода, она не является достаточным теплоизолятором. Наращивать толщину дорогостоящей древесной базы не целенаправлено, лучше использовать действенные теплоизоляторы в купе с негорючими отделочными покрытиями. Утепление стенок низкоэтажных древесных построек может производиться при помощи систем типа "шуба" с оштукатуриванием фасадов, защитно-декоративными экранами с вентилируемой полостью, облицовкой кирпичом и другими плитными материалами, имеющими достаточную воздухо- и паропроницаемость. При всем этом ограничений для применяемых материалов фактически не устанавливается, что существенно расширяет их номенклатуру и позволяет использовать для отделки фасадов обшивочные доски (к примеру,виниловый сайдинг), а в качестве теплоизоляторов такие материалы, как пенополистирол, пеноизол и др.

При реконструкции имеющихся домов либо новеньком строительстве часто используют комбинированные стенки с внешним слоем из глиняного кирпича и внутренним - из бруса. Подобные конструкции позволяют использовать как достоинства кирпича (огне- и атмосферостойкость, ударную крепкость), так и положительные характеристики древесной породы (огромную теплоемкость, крепкость при извиве, экологичность). Несущими элементами конструкции могут быть древесный сруб (при кладке в половину кирпича) либо сруб и кирпичная кладка. Сопротивление теплопроводимости комбинированной стенки составляет более 2,5 оСВт/м.

В комбинированных конструкциях обязателен учет сопоставимости разнородных частей. Так как древесная порода является относительно влагоемким материалом, подверженным тлению, при плотном прилегании кирпичной кладки к древесному срубу на его наружной поверхности начинает конденсироваться влага(за счет дневных конфигураций температуры и влажности воздуха). Образующийся грибок (плесень) будет равномерно разрушать как цементный раствор, скрепляющий кладку, так и саму древесную породу. Для предотвращения схожих негативных моментов неотклонима вентиляционная прослойка меж кладкой из кирпича и срубом. Для естественного (конвективного) движения воздуха нужно оставлять маленькие отверстия ("продухи") в нижней части кирпичной стенки.

Ветровые и снеговые нагрузки, сезонная смена температур могут стать предпосылкой появления напряжений в элементах комбинированной конструкции. Для древесного сруба это практической угрозы не представляет, а чтоб уменьшить процесс разрушения кирпичной кладки, нужно устройство связей (покрытый цинком металл, пластик и т.п.), придающих конструкции дополнительную твердость и не препятствующих свободной конвекции воздуха.

Комбинированные конструкции с внедрением древесных частей являются в инженерном плане сооружением сложным, но многообещающим, потому что оно включает положительные характеристики разнородных частей.


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