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Материалы для печи

Кирпич, глина, песок.

Кирпичи должны быть одномерными, хорошего обжига (недожог и жезняк не пригодны), правильной формы, с прямыми гранями, углами и не искривлёнными поверхностями, без трещин, вкраплений камней и других посторонних материалов.

Хороший кирпич должен, при простукивании, издавать чистый металлический звук и, при падении, разбиваться только на крупные куски.

Применять для кладки печей силикатный, дырчатый и щелевой кирпичи категорически запрещается!

Помимо глиняного кирпича, для облицовки топливника, подвергающегося особенно высокой температуре, самодельщики применяют (если, конечно, достанут!) тугоплавкий гжельский кирпич (белый) или огнеупорный шамотный.

В зависимости от кирпича, подбирают и глину: обыкновенную, тугоплавкую, гжельскую и огнеупорную.

Глину замачивают за 1-2 чдо начала работы в количестве, достаточном, максимум, на 4 чработы. Глину предварительно очищают от крупных вкраплений, протирая через сито с отверстиями не больше 4 мм.

Песок для раствора должен быть чистый, без примесей, зёрна — угловатые и размером, не более 1 мм. Этому требованию отвечает только горный песок. Его просеивают через сито с ячейками, имеющими стороны 1,5 мм.

Приготовляют глиняный раствор на бойке вручную. Замоченную глину выкладывают на боёк, в виде грядки, рядом с песком и перемешивают, сильно ударяя лопатой до исчезновения комков.

При перемешивании глины с песком, отдельными порциями добавляют воду, в объёме до 1/4объёма глины. Последнюю порцию воды добавляют на рабочем месте.

Хороший глиняный раствор должен легко сползать со стальной лопаты и не растекаться по ней.

Соотношение глины и песка, обычно, берут в пределах 1:1или 1:2(в зависимости от жирности глины).

Кладку из огнеупорного кирпича ведут на растворе из огнеупорной глины, смешанной, в пропорции 1:1, с мелкоизмельчённым шамотом. Небольшим количеством такого огнеупорного раствора всегда можно «разжиться» на крупной государственной (промышленной) котельной, где его постоянно применяют для мелкого ремонта печей.

Чтобы глиняный раствор не размывало дождями, понятно, что печь возводят только под постоянной кровлей или временным навесом.

Чугунные печные приборы

Чугунные печные приборы предназначены для комплектации бытовых печей-каминов, устанавливаемых в зданиях с печным отоплением.

очажная плита с двумя конфорками,

топочная дверка,

поддувальная дверка,

колосниковая решётка,

задвижка.

q Наименование прибора

q Размеры, мм

q Масса,кг

Очажная плита

710х410х15

16,5

Топочная дверка

270х230х70

4,8

Поддувальная дверка

270х 160х70

3,5

Колосниковая решетка

300х200х15

5,6

Задвижка

390х190х18

3,0

Как выкладывают печь

Сначала укладывают первый сплошной ряд кирпича, который является нижним рядом массива печи от гидроизоляции до низа дымовых каналов.

Тщательно проверяют углы, диагонали, параллельность стенам. Затем, промеряют сторону печи, где должна быть поставлена топочная дверка, определяют место прохода дымовой трубы через перекрытие и кровлю.

Перед кладкой каждого ряда ответственных частей печи, кирпичи предварительно подбирают насухо. К околке и тёске кирпича надо прибегать как можно реже, ибо, отёсанная поверхность имеет меньшую прочность. Отёсанная сторона также не должна соприкасаться с дымовыми газами.

Обыкновенный кирпич, до укладки на место, смачивают водой, тугоплавкий только ополаскивают, чтобы удалить пыль.

Перевязка швов — обязательна и должна быть не менее 1/2кирпича и, только в исключительных случаях, — 1/4кирпича.

Растирают раствор по кирпичу рукой. И запомните старинное «золотое правило» печника: шов делать, как можно тоньше. Во всяком случае, он не должен превышать 5 мм.

Кладка печи по высоте вяжется стальной проволокой, предварительно отожжённой, для придания ей мягкости и скрученной в несколько ниток.

Проволоку закрепляют на гвоздях длиной 100-150-мм, закладываемых в швы кладки. Должно быть не менее двух вязок на каждой свободной стороне печи.



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