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Все дело в ячейках

Понятие "ячеистый бетон" охватывает обширный класс материалов, которые различаются по способу образования пористой структуры, виду вяжущего или кремнеземистого компонента, назначению и проч.

По способу образования пористой структуры они подраз­деляются на газобетоны и пенобетоны. Первые производят введением в смесь газообразующих веществ, вторые — смешиванием предварительно подготовленной пены с ми­неральными компонентами. Существуют также различные модификации этих способов (вспучивание при небольшом разрежении, аэрирование, аэрирование под давлением, га­зообразование и др.), однако промышленного применения они не получили.

Вид вяжущего и способ образования пористой структуры определяют название ячеистого бетона. На цементе — это газо- и пенобетоны, на извести — газо- и пеносиликаты, на шлаковом вяжущем — газошлакобетоны и пеношлакобето-ны, на смешанном цементно-известковом вяжущем (в зави­симости от соотношения цемента и извести) — газобетоны или газосиликаты; пенобетоны или пеносиликаты и т.д.

ТЕХНОЛОГИЯ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА

Итак, газообразователем при производ­стве газобетона является алюминиевая пудра, реакция которой с гидратом оки­си кальция сопровождается выделени­ем водорода. Важно, чтобы скорость его образования соответствовала скорости нарастания вязкости раствора вяжуще­го при его схватывании. Если не соблю­дается это условие, выделяющийся газ либо разрушает затвердевающую ячеисто-бетонную массу, либо прорывается из еще не схватившегося раствора. В этом случае ячеистая структура обра­зоваться не может.

Применяемые технические пены долж­ны удовлетворять требованиям, касаю­щимся выхода пор, то есть отношения объема пены к массе пенообразователя (л/кг) и коэффициента использования пенообразователя.

В зависимости от того, какой именно используется кремнеземистый компо­нент (кварцевый песок, зола-унос от сжигания каменного угля, отходы гли­ноземного производства и т.д.), ячеи­стый бетон называют газозолосиликатом, пенозолобетоном, сланцезольным газосиликатом и т.д. По назначению выделяют три вида ячеи­стого бетона — теплоизоляционный (средняя плотность до 500 кг/м,- порис­тость 82-92%), используемый как утеп­литель, теплоизоляционно-конструкци­онный для ограждающих конструкций (средняя плотность 500-900 кг/м3, по­ристость 66-82%) и конструкционный для жилых и сельскохозяйственных зда­ний (средняя плотность 900-1 400 кг/м3, пористость 47-66%). Средняя плотность материала определяется плотностью си­ликатного камня и пористостью, обра­зующейся в результате поризации массы и испарения воды затворения. Его строительные свойства (средняя плотность, прочность, теплопроводность и т.п.) зависят от величины общей по­ристости и характеристик пористой структуры: среднего и максимального диаметра пор, их распределения по раз­мерам, формы, толщины межпоровых перегородок и проч.

ФИЗИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ СВОЙСТВА

Свойства ячеистых бетонов зависят от их средней плотности, вида вяжущего вещества и кремнеземистого компо­нента, их количественного соотноше­ния, способа порообразования, водосодержания ячеистой смеси и условий ее твердения.

Пористый ячеистый бетон обладает вы­сокой теплоизолирующей способно­стью. Его теплоаккумулирующие свой­ства позволяют не только создать ком­фортные условия в помещении, но и значительно сэкономить на отоплении. Это экологически чистый материал, со­четающий достоинства древесины и кирпича: он "дышит", регулируя влаж­ность в помещении, не гниет, не горит и препятствует распространению огня, не стареет, имеет низкое содержание есте­ственных радионуклидов, является хо­рошим звукоизолятором. Относительно небольшая плотность (и, соответственно, масса) ячеистого бето­на позволяет снизить транспортномонтажные расходы, а также трудо­емкость работ. Например, стандартный мелкий блок из ячеистого бетона разме­рами 600x250x200 мм марки Д600 массой 18 кг может заменить в стене до 15 кирпичей общей массой до 80 кг. При этом трудоемкость кладки блоков из ячеистого бетона в 5-7 раз ниже, чем у кирпича. В несколько раз снижается также и расход кладочного раствора. Точные размеры и ровная поверхность блоков обеспечивают значительную экономию отделочных материалов. На сегодняшний день мелкие блоки из ячеистых бетонов получают все боль­шее распространение, а объем их про­изводства возрастает. Этот строитель­ный материал обещает стать одним из самых популярных в XXI веке.



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